Change and Leadership in Higher Education
Astin, Alexander W., and Helen S. Astin et al.
Leadership Reconsidered: Engaging Higher Education in Social Change. Battle Creek, Mich.: W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 2000. (103 pp.)
This concise volume applies transformative leadership to the world of higher education, specifically addressing four of academia’s principle constituent groups. After explaining the need for change (chapter 1) and the principles of transformative leadership (chapter 2), the authors discuss the roles and expectations for students (chapter 3), faculty (chapter 4), student affairs professional (chapter 5), and presidents and other administrators (chapter 6). The final chapter is a call to all members of the academy to incorporate transformative leadership principles into their part of the campus.
Boyer, Ernest L.
Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. Princeton, N.J.: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1990. (147 pp.)
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This is the volume often noted as the marker of the turning of the tide in higher education’s acknowledgement of the scholarship of teaching, that is, that teaching is a worthy field of inquiry for professors of every academic discipline. Boyer argues for an expanded view of scholarship to include: 1) the scholarship of discovery—closest to the traditional idea of research, 2) the scholarship of integration—making connections between disciplines, 3) the scholarship of application—rigorous and dynamic service-oriented research, and 4) the scholarship of teaching. Of course, he does not deny the interactivity of these four kinds of scholarship. Rather, he means to stress, “What we urgently need today is a more inclusive view of what it means to be a scholar—a recognition that knowledge is acquired through research, through synthesis, through practice, and through teaching” (p. 24). The bulk of this special report by the president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching is covered in the first 81 pages. The next 42 pages of charts in Appendix A show the results of a 1989 national survey of faculty; two more appendices give technical notes on the survey and the Carnegie classifications of colleges and universities.
Curry, Barbara K.
Instituting Enduring Innovations: Achieving Continuity of Change in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 7. Washington, D.C.: The George Washington University, School of Education and Human Development, 1992. (76 pp.)
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In examining the stages of institutional change, Curry addresses the issue of getting innovations to the final stage whereby the change becomes institutionalized and thereby “permanent.” She reckons, however, with the complexity of the real world where some innovations are effective without being enduring of themselves, especially changes that make way for other changes to emerge. Factors influencing the longevity of changes include leadership, communication, decision making, and the dissent voice. Since change is a negotiated process, these factors all serve useful roles for bringing learning organizations through meaningful change. When members of learning organizations are provided with valid information they can responsibly use in making self-initiated and creative decisions for the good of the group, the learning organization will begin to function more and more as an innovative community.
Academic and Career Advising. Academic Challenges. Long Beach, Calif.: Academic Program Improvement, . (38 pp.)
This brief pamphlet reports on twenty-nine various academic and career advising programs at California State University campuses funded by Academic Program Improvement from 1978 through 1981. Chapters deal with the background and trends of advising in the CSU, assessment of the projects, and some concluding recommendations.
University and High School Partnerships. Academic Challenges. Long Beach, Calif.: Academic Program Improvement, . (22 pp.)
This brief pamphlet reports on the Academic Program Improvement grant funded projects undertaken at five California State University campuses to foster partnerships between university faculty and local high schools for improving the college readiness of high school students. Chapters deal with learning bridges, mathematics, writing, science, and magnet programs. It closes with suggested principles for successful university-high school partnerships.
Academic Strategy: The Management Revolution in American Higher Education. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press/AAHE, 1983. (211 pp.)
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Keller records the revolutionary change in university management that was occurring in early 1980’s America. Academia’s adoption of modern management and planning techniques came in response to education’s enrollment and cost crises. The book is divided into two parts with the first part describing the educational management revolution and the second part prescribing an approach to strategic planning for educational institutions.
Levine, Arthur, and Associates.
Shaping Higher Education’s Future: Demographic Realities and Opportunities, 1990-2000. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990. (189 pp.)
Stemming from a symposium on the demographics of higher education in America, articles in part 1 discuss the then projected demographic changes for the last decade of the twentieth century concerning traditional college-age students, Hispanics, blacks, Asians, and older students. Three chapters in part 2 address the uses and misuses of demographic projections, argue that higher education need not be destined by demographics, and make recommendations for higher education’s response to the trends.
Puzon, Bridget, and Jerry G. Gaff, eds.
Current Issues in Liberal Education. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges, no date. (56 pp.)
This collection of articles come from the late 1980’s and early 1990’s issues of Liberal Education, the quarterly journal of the Association of American Colleges. Topics addressed include learning communities, engaging the culture, becoming a multicultural institution, critical thinking, information literacy, college admissions, and seasons of academic life.
Rhoads, Robert A. and William G. Tierney.
Cultural Leadership in Higher Education. University Park, Penn.: National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment, 1992. (59 pp.)
Rhoads and Tierney claim that solutions to university problems related to diversity “are best developed when administrators closely examine the values, beliefs, traditions, and histories that organizational members hold” (p. 1). Based on research, they assert eight principles for effective academic leadership in changing an institutional culture.
Wilcox, John R., and Susan L. Ebbs.
The Leadership Compass: Values and Ethics in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1. Washington, D.C.: The George Washington University, School of Education and Human Development, 1992. (110 pp.)
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Because knowledge is power in a society and, to the extent that colleges and universities are custodians (creators and disseminators) of knowledge, colleges and universities have moral responsibilities to use their power for the well being of that society. The ethos of higher education (its particular customs, practices, and institutional contexts) entails situations with significant ethical implications for faculty, administrators, and students. By virtue of their role, professors are in unequal relationships with, and have considerable power over, students. Professorial knowledge is in some sense community property and dedicated to the good of the society; reckoning with this valuation of their knowledge can ethically inform their behavior.
University leadership must carry out the values of the institutional mission, but usually in some shared governance with the faculty. Students are often ill prepared to face the level of ethical decision-making offered them in the ethos of higher education on matters of human dignity, substance use/abuse, and academic integrity. The issues to address call attention to a lack of community and a lack of shared values that would give more direction in higher education. While respecting individual differences, a learning community is a group that seeks to overcome together the kind of individuality that results in alienation and fragmentation. The authors encourage a campus-wide values audit to bring the various members of the institution into greater understanding of their explicit and implicit values and to form a more cohesive learning community.